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The Initial Development of Transient Volcanic Plumes as a Function of Source Conditions
Citation key TournigandTaddeucciGaudinPenaFernandezDelBelloScarlatoKueppersSesterhennYokoo2017
Author Pierre‐Yves Tournigand and Jacopo Taddeucci and Damien Gaudin and Juan José Peña Fernández and Elisabetta Del Bello and Piergiorgio Scarlato and Ulrich Kueppers and Jörn Sesterhenn and Akihiko Yokoo
Pages 9784-9803
Year 2017
DOI 10.1002/2017JB014907
Journal Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth
Volume 122
Number 12
Abstract Abstract Transient volcanic plumes, having similar eruption duration and rise timescales, characterize many unsteady Strombolian to Vulcanian eruptions. Despite being more common, such plumes are less studied than their steady state counterpart from stronger eruptions. Here we investigate the initial dynamics of transient volcanic plumes using high‐speed (visible light and thermal) and high‐resolution (visible light) videos from Strombolian to Vulcanian eruptions of Stromboli (Italy), Fuego (Guatemala), and Sakurajima (Japan) volcanoes. Physical parameterization of the plumes has been performed by defining their front velocity, velocity field, volume, and apparent surface temperature. We also characterized the ejection of the gas‐pyroclast mixture at the vent, in terms of number, location, duration, and frequency of individual ejection pulses and of time‐resolved mass eruption rate of the ejecta's ash fraction. Front velocity evolves along two distinct trends related to the initial gas‐thrust phase and later buoyant phase. Plumes' velocity field, obtained via optical flow analysis, highlights different features, including initial jets and the formation and/or merging of ring vortexes at different scales. Plume volume increases over time following a power law trend common to all volcanoes and affected by discharge history at the vent. Time‐resolved ash eruption rates range between 102 and 107 kg/s and may vary up to 2 orders of magnitude within the first seconds of eruption. Our results help detailing how the number, location, angle, duration, velocity, and time interval between ejection pulses at the vents crucially control the initial (first tens of second), and possibly later, evolution of transient volcanic plumes.
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